Literature review on depressive disorders

They reported that the average lifetime and 12 month prevalence estimate of major depressive episode was The antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy were accompanied by inducing hippocampal neurogenesis in adult non-human primates [ ]. These results were not changed after adjusting for sex and age.

They found that parent depression at time 1 is positively correlated with child depression at time 2, which was consistent with Tully, Depressive Disorders 8 Iacono, and McGue study, and that child age was positively correlated with depression.

A literature review of heart rate variability in depressive and bipolar disorders

Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and imipramine, and lithium were demonstrated to increase Akt activity [, ]. Universal intervention programs target large groups of people at the same time and focus on cognitive and behaviour skills among adolescents.

Moreover, lowered serum levels of antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10 and zinc, could be biological markers of treatment resistance to antidepressant therapy [].

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In week 28, there were no differences in depression outcome or functional measures among groups. Patients with atypical subtype depression tend to Literature review on depressive disorders a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and in particular its obesity-related disturbances [ 25 ], and show higher inflammatory levels of inflammatory markers [ 2021 ].

Despite psychopharmacological advances during the past six decades, the management of major depression and other mood disorders continues to challenge mental health providers.

A chronic, low-grade inflammatory state within visceral adipose tissue contributes to insulin resistance through activation of inflammatory signaling cascades within immune cells e.

Estrogen may protect against this increase in inflammation in treatment non-responsive depressive disorders. A poor response has been associated with obesity in men treated with serotonergic antidepressants [ 11 ] and noradrenergic antidepressants, but not in either sex treated with serotonergic antidepressants [ 18 ] or post-menopausal women treated primarily with SSRIs or SNRIs in our preliminary experiments.

This neurodegeneration can contribute to changes in brain structure and function and to treatment resistance in depressive disorder [ ]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: Neumeister, Young and Stastny investigated the role of serotonin in depression and implicated abnormality in 5-HT transporter in major depression.

However, none of the above mentioned gender differences occur in childhood. One possible level of analysis for depressive disorders is looking at parental influences of depression. We are all familiar with the old adage that prevention is better than cure.

Biological risk factors for females include early puberty that leads to disruption of oestrogen and substantial increase of testosterone as both of these hormones are implicated in depression. In these two studies, the proportion of female subjects was relatively high Lastly, Kujawa et al.

The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: Apart from cognitive factors, behavioural factors like learned helplessness and insufficient positive reinforcement along with major life stressors like death, divorce, and separation also contribute to depression.

Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects.

Hyde, Mezulis, and Abramson proposed a model that looked at certain cognitive, environmental, affective and biological risk factors of depression in girls in order to explain these gender differences. As mentioned above, high quality of family relationships act as a protective factor.

Managing Depressive Symptoms: A Review of the Literature. This part, Part 3, is a literature review on the topic of depressive symptoms, and is available for use by clinical supervisors, interested substance abuse counselors, and administrators. and duration criteria for depressive disorders in the s result­.

lar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia (Alvares etal., ; Gorman and Sloan, This review examines the current literature which explores the associations of the ANS with both major depressive dis-A literature review of heart. CHAPTER II.

LITERATURE REVIEW Definitions Generalized anxiety disorders (Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is a condition of a disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry and irrational sometimes unrealistic to events. Literature Review form Disorders. Literature Review This can produce, sustain, or worsen depressive symptoms.

It states that there is a relationship between avoidance and depression that is large explained by the mediating role of reduced positive reinforcement. Documents Similar To Literature Review. as the early postmenopause – as a window of vulnerability for the development of both depressive symptoms and major depressive.

review the scientific literature on depressive disorders and. association might not reflect a causal effect of ET on depres. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that depressive disorders are highly prevalent: displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment.

Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

These studies have deepened our understanding of the course of depression; remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence.

Literature review on depressive disorders
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